The United Nations and Maintenance of International Peace and Security
The United Nations a successor of the League of Nations was created in an attempt to reform the contemporary international political order. The outbreak of the Second World War convinced the world leader that the failures of he League of Nations to contribute towards creating a strong international order, with wider acceptability across the globe and that was well placed to address the global problems, sparked the outbreak. After going through the devastation of the war and facing the chain reaction of bloodshed, violence, brutality, hunger, and migration, the victors of the war decided to improve upon the botched experience of the League and there upon The United Nations was created.
The United Nations officially came into existence when the Charter was ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the US and by a majority of other signatories on 24 October 1945 the day now known as the UN day.
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The framer of the charter attempted to make the international system more fluid and flexible to respond to the challenges that could potentially threaten international peace and security. The other contemporary status to ensure their supremacy and to perpetually outcast the axis powers Germany, Japan and Italy who fought against the allied powers America, the Great Britain and the Soviet Union.
Explicit reference to these states, in the form of enemy states could be found in Articles 53 and 77 of the Charter.The purpose of the UN as per Article 1 of the Charter is to ensure international peace and security and to take collective measures to that effect; to develop friendly relations among nations; to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of economic, social, cultural and humanitarian character; to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations these common goals.
The United Nations
A cursory look at these objectives will reflect the main purpose of the main purpose of the UN maintenance of international peace and security. In pursuance of these objectives, the principles to conduct interstate relation have been mentioned in the Article 2, which, interalia, states that the member states must resolve their differences peacefully and shall refrain from using force or threat of using force. This article also restricts the UN to intervene in matters which fall directly within the domestic jurisdiction of the states. This, however, does not preclude the UN from taking action under Chapter VII of the Charter and enforcing its decision upon any state.
The creation of the UN has prompted the debate over the successes and failures of the UN with arguments on both sides abound. Those in favor argue that the UN system has successfully prevented the outbreak of Third World War.Where as critics support their arguments pointing towards the opaque proceedings on the Security Council, the main decision making body with the powers to enforce its decision under Chapter VII. In order to evaluate his performance of the UN system, first, it is pertinent to understand the infrastructure and the working.
The UN comprises six organs: The United Nations Assembly, the Security council, the Economic and Social Council the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of justice and the Secretariat headed by the UN secretary general. The Security Council has 15 members five permanent also known as P-5 and 10 non-permanent members with two year term each. The issues on which the Council deliberates upon are classified into procedural and non-procedural or substantive. The vote on the procedural question requires concurrence of any nine members including the concurrence of p-5. A negative vote of any p-5 member is a negative vote.
Interestingly, the very question whether any issue is procedural or substantive is itself a non-procedural question and can be vetoed. The proceedings of the Council mostly take place in informal consultations and among the p-5. The lack of transparency is the biggest criticism of its working that is entirely indefensible.The United Nations Assembly is the true democratic organ in which each of the 193 members of the UN enjoys one vote. Under Article 10, The United Nations Assembly can deliberate upon any issue that comes under the charter except those that are already under discussion in the Council and has the authority to frame recommendations.
To a cynic, The United Nations assembly is only a debating club as the meaningful actions take place in the Council. However, objectively speaking, The United Nations assembly has weight of its own and it is not possible to endlessly resist an issue on which unanimity prevails in the United Nations assembly.